India`s commitment to the Paris Agreement – an overview for UPSC aspirants
The Paris Agreement, which was signed on 12th December 2015, is a legally binding international agreement on climate change. The aim of the agreement is to limit global warming to below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase even further to 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels. The agreement sets out a global action plan to put the world on track to avoid dangerous climate change by limiting global warming to well below 2 degrees Celsius.
India, as one of the signatories of the Paris Agreement, has committed to take several actions to tackle climate change. This commitment is crucial as India is one of the largest greenhouse gas emitters in the world. In this article, we will look at India`s commitment to the Paris Agreement and what it means for the country.
India`s commitment to the Paris Agreement
India submitted its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) in October 2015, in which it pledged to reduce its emissions intensity (the amount of emissions per unit of GDP) by 33-35% by 2030 from 2005 levels. It also committed to achieving 40% of its electricity from renewable sources by 2030 and to create an additional carbon sink of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent through additional forest and tree cover by 2030. India`s commitment is significant as it aims to achieve these targets while continuing to grow its economy.
India also pledged to launch a National Adaptation Fund for Climate Change (NAFCC) to support climate adaptation projects and to create a network of climate-resilient villages across the country. The country also committed to mobilizing $100 billion annually by 2020 in climate finance to support climate action in developing countries.
India`s actions to fulfill its commitment
Since submitting its INDC, India has taken several actions to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions and fulfill its commitment under the Paris Agreement. One of the significant steps taken by India is the launch of the International Solar Alliance (ISA) in 2015, which aims to promote renewable energy and reduce dependence on fossil fuels. The ISA, which has 122 member countries, aims to mobilize $1 trillion in investment by 2030 in solar energy projects.
India has also launched several initiatives to promote clean energy, such as the Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana, which aims to provide clean cooking fuel to households that use traditional fuels such as biomass and coal. The country has also introduced the Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of (Hybrid &) Electric Vehicles in India (FAME) scheme to promote the use of electric vehicles.
India has also taken several steps to improve energy efficiency, such as the Perform, Achieve and Trade (PAT) scheme, which is a market-based mechanism to improve energy efficiency in large energy-intensive industries. The government has also launched the National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency (NMEEE) to promote energy-efficient technologies and practices.
India`s commitment to the Paris Agreement is significant, given the country`s large greenhouse gas emissions and its reliance on fossil fuels. The country has made significant progress in promoting clean energy, energy efficiency, and climate adaptation since submitting its INDC. However, achieving its targets will require sustained effort and investment in renewable energy, energy efficiency, and climate adaptation. UPSC aspirants must be aware of India`s commitment to the Paris Agreement and its actions to fulfill its commitment as the topic is relevant for both prelims and mains exam.
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